Haematological Parameters, CD4+ T Cells, Plasma HIV RNA Quantification And Interleukin-18 Levels In Adults, Infected With HIV-1 Before And After Initiation Of Antiretroviraltherapy In Zaria, Nigeria
Keywords:HAART, plasma HIV viral load, CD4+ T-Cells, serum IL-18, HIV-1 infection
Background: Interleukin (IL)-18, is an important proinflammatory cytokine which induces and regulates immune responses in patients with HIV-1 infection. It is reported to be elevated in patients with HIV-1 infection and decreases after highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). However, relatively little is known about its production in HIV infection in the local population.
Aim and Objectives: To determine and compare the serum levels of IL-18, CD4+ T lymphocytes and HIV viral load quantification following treatment with HAART.
Materials and Methods: Forty-four (44) HAART naive HIV-1 infected patients undergoing pre-treatment assessment were recruited consecutively at the HIV sub-specialty clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, and commenced on HAART. Haematological parameters were measured using the Sysmex KX-21N automated analyzer, CD4+ T cell counts were quantified using Cyflow counter machine by Partec Germany, IL-18 was assayed using the Quantikine Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and plasma HIV viral load (pVL) was performed using COBAS Roche Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. All the parameters were assessed at baseline and repeated at 6 months.
Results: The baseline results versus 6 months were as follows: Haematological parameters were not statistically significant difference following HAART. Serum IL-18 (1345.0 pg/ml vs 741.5 pg/ml; p =0.0188), CD4+ Tcell counts (151.0 cells/µl vs 196.5 cells/µl; p=0.0048) and pVL (6883 copies/ml vs 115 copies/ml, p=0.0001). This shows that while serum IL-18 levels and pVL reduced significantly. CD4+ T-lymphocytes increased with HAART. CD4+ T lymphocytes and IL18 levels were not significantly correlated to white cell count and pVL following HAART.
Conclusion: In this study IL-18 levels in HIV-1 infected patients declined following antiretroviral therapy, therefore effective administration of HAART may result in lowering this proinflammatory cytokine.
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